Fraction – Definition, Types, FAQs, Examples
At Brighterly, we believe that understanding fractions is key to building a solid foundation in mathematics. Fractions are a versatile and essential concept in various fields, from finance and engineering to everyday life scenarios like cooking and sharing resources. By learning fractions, children develop critical thinking skills, enabling them to tackle more complex mathematical concepts with ease.
What are Fractions?
Fractions are a mathematical concept that represents a part of a whole. They are used to describe quantities that are not whole numbers. A fraction is expressed as a ratio of two integers, with the top number called the numerator and the bottom number called the denominator. The numerator signifies the number of equal parts being considered, while the denominator represents the total number of equal parts that make up the whole.
Fractions play an essential role in various aspects of mathematics, from basic arithmetic to advanced calculus. They’re a fundamental concept that children need to understand as they progress through their math education.
Parts of Fractions
There are two main parts to a fraction: the numerator and the denominator. These two numbers are separated by a horizontal line or a forward slash (/). The numerator is the top number, which represents the number of parts being considered. The denominator, on the other hand, is the bottom number and represents the total number of equal parts that make up the whole.
For example, in the fraction 3/4, 3 is the numerator and 4 is the denominator. This fraction tells us that we have 3 parts out of a total of 4 equal parts.
Remember, practice is the key to mastering any math concept, so don’t forget to check out our amazing collection of math worksheets for kids to reinforce your understanding of Fractions.
Properties of Fractions
Fractions have several important properties that help us understand and manipulate them:
 Equality: Two fractions are equal if the product of their crossmultiplying terms is the same. For example, 2/3 is equal to 4/6 because 2 × 6 = 3 × 4.
 Reciprocal: The reciprocal of a fraction is obtained by interchanging the numerator and denominator. For example, the reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3.
 Multiplicative inverse: A fraction multiplied by its reciprocal always equals 1. For example, (3/4) × (4/3) = 12/12 = 1.
Types of Fractions
There are several different types of fractions, including:
 Proper Fractions: A proper fraction has a numerator that is smaller than the denominator. For example, 3/4 is a proper fraction because 3 is less than 4.
 Improper Fractions: An improper fraction has a numerator that is equal to or larger than the denominator. For example, 7/4 is an improper fraction because 7 is greater than 4.
 Mixed Numbers: A mixed number consists of a whole number and a proper fraction. For example, 1 3/4 is a mixed number because it includes the whole number 1 and the proper fraction 3/4.
Fraction of a Whole
A fraction of a whole is a way of representing a part of a whole object or quantity. For example, if we have a pizza and cut it into 8 equal slices, each slice represents 1/8 of the pizza. If we eat 3 slices, we’ve consumed 3/8 of the pizza.
Unit Fractions
A unit fraction is a fraction with a numerator of 1. It represents one part of a whole that has been divided into equal parts. Examples of unit fractions include 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, and so on.
Fraction on a Number Line
A fraction on a number line is a way of representing fractions visually. To represent a fraction on a number line, you can divide the line into equal parts based on the denominator and then count the number of parts indicated by the numerator. For example, to represent the fraction 3/4, you would divide the line into 4 equal parts and mark the point that is 3 parts away from the starting point.
Rules for Simplification of Fractions
Simplifying fractions makes them easier to work with and understand. To simplify a fraction:
 Find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the numerator and denominator. The GCD is the largest number that divides both numbers without leaving a remainder.
 Divide both the numerator and the denominator by the GCD. The resulting fraction is the simplified form.
For example, to simplify the fraction 6/8, the GCD of 6 and 8 is 2. Dividing both the numerator and the denominator by 2, we get the simplified fraction 3/4.
Adding Fractions
To add fractions, follow these steps:
 Ensure that the fractions have the same denominator. If not, find the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators and convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the LCM as the new denominator.
 Add the numerators of the equivalent fractions.
 Simplify the resulting fraction if possible.
For example, to add 2/3 and 1/6, first find the LCM of 3 and 6, which is 6. Convert 2/3 to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 6: (2/3) × (2/2) = 4/6. Now add the numerators: 4/6 + 1/6 = 5/6.
Subtracting Fractions
Subtracting fractions is similar to adding fractions:
 Ensure that the fractions have the same denominator. If not, find the LCM of the denominators and convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the LCM as the new denominator.
 Subtract the numerators of the equivalent fractions.
 Simplify the resulting fraction if possible.
For example, to subtract 1/6 from 2/3, first find the LCM of 3 and 6, which is 6. Convert 2/3 to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 6: (2/3) × (2/2) = 4/6. Now subtract the numerators: 4/6 – 1/6 = 3/6, which simplifies to 1/2.
Multiplication of Fractions
To multiply fractions, simply multiply the numerators together and the denominators together:
(a/b) × (c/d) = (a × c) / (b × d)
For example, to multiply 2/3 by 3/5, multiply the numerators (2 × 3 = 6) and the denominators (3 × 5 = 15) to get 6/15. Simplify the resulting fraction to get 2/5.
Division of Fractions
To divide fractions, multiply the first fraction by the reciprocal of the second fraction:
(a/b) ÷ (c/d) = (a/b) × (d/c)
For example, to divide 2/3 by 3/5, multiply 2/3 by the reciprocal of 3/5, which is 5/3: (2/3) × (5/3) = 10/9.
RealLife Examples of Fractions
Fractions are used in many reallife situations, such as:
 Measuring ingredients for cooking or baking, e.g., 1/2 cup of sugar, 3/4 teaspoon of salt.
 Representing probabilities, e.g., the chance of winning a lottery or a game.
 Dividing objects or resources among people, e.g., sharing a pizza or distributing money among siblings.
 Calculating discounts, e.g., a 25% discount on a $100 item is 25/100 × $100 = $25 off.
 Understanding measurements, e.g., a 3/4inch wrench or a 1/2mile distance.
How to Convert Fractions To Decimals?
To convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator:
Decimal = Numerator / Denominator
For example, to convert 3/4 to a decimal, divide 3 by 4: 3 ÷ 4 = 0.75.
Solved Examples on Fractions

Example: Add 1/4 and 3/8.
Solution:
 Find the LCM of 4 and 8, which is 8.
 Convert 1/4 to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 8: (1/4) × (2/2) = 2/8.
 Add the numerators: 2/8 + 3/8 = 5/8.

Example: Subtract 5/12 from 7/6.
Solution:
 Find the LCM of 12 and 6, which is 12.
 Convert 7/6 to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 12: (7/6) × (2/2) = 14/12.
 Subtract the numerators: 14/12 – 5/12 = 9/12, which simplifies to 3/4.

Example: Multiply 3/5 by 5/9.
Solution:
 Multiply the numerators: 3 × 5 = 15.
 Multiply the denominators: 5 × 9 = 45.
 The resulting fraction is 15/45, which simplifies to 1/3.
Practice Problems on Fractions
 Add 3/7 and 2/3.
 Subtract 1/5 from 3/4.
 Multiply 2/9 by 3/7.
 Divide 4/5 by 7/10.
Conclusion
Fractions play a pivotal role in building a strong foundation in mathematics, and at Brighterly, we strive to provide children with the tools they need to succeed in their mathematical journey. By understanding the different types of fractions, learning how to simplify them, and mastering various operations with fractions, children can excel in math and apply these skills in reallife situations. Through our comprehensive guide to fractions and other math resources, we aim to nurture a passion for learning and empower children to reach their full potential. Remember, the brighter the start, the brighter the future!
Frequently Asked Questions on Fractions
What is the difference between a proper fraction and an improper fraction?
A proper fraction has a numerator that is smaller than the denominator, while an improper fraction has a numerator that is equal to or larger than the denominator.
How do you simplify a fraction?
To simplify a fraction, find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the numerator and denominator, and then divide both the numerator and the denominator by the GCD.
How do you convert a fraction to a decimal?
To convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator.
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